**A Qualitative Model for ****Virtual
Photons**

(2) Every charged particle constantly emits
virtual photons. Each photon specifies the emitting particle's charge of __+__
e.

(3) When
a photon is absorbed, one is immediately emitted, specifying the emitting
particle's electric charge, and in the opposite direction of the absorbed
photon's momentum.

(5a) Case 1. **A positive
charge absorbs a positive photon**. The charge immediately emits a positive
photon back in the direction from which the absorbed photon came. The charge
receives an impulse in the same direction as the absorbed photon's momentum.

(5b)
Case 2. **A negative charge absorbs a
negative photon**. The charge immediately emits a negative photon back in the
direction from which the absorbed photon came. The charge receives an impulse in
the same direction as the absorbed photon's momentum.

(5c) Case 3. **A positive
charge absorbs a negative photon**. The charge immediately emits a positive
photon back in the direction from which the absorbed negative photon came. The
charge receives an impulse in the *opposite* direction as the absorbed
photon's momentum.

(5d) Case 4. **A negative
charge absorbs a positive photon**. The charge immediately emits a negative
photon back in the direction from which the absorbed positive photon came. The
charge receives an impulse in the opposite direction as the absorbed photon's
momentum.

(6) Virtual photons propagate at the speed of light.

(7) The mass of every virtual photon is real.

(8) Given a macroscopic
spherical charge, the photons are
collectively emitted in outwardly expanding spheres. The flux of photons is thus spherical, and the flux per unit time falls off as 1/R^{2},
where R is the distance from the samples’ center.