“Matter” and Quarks
a particle of positive charge, momentarily on the x-axis at the origin. An
external electric force causes the charge to accelerate in the positive
x-direction. If we use our right hand to construct a circle, centered on the
charge and lying in the yz-plane, then at a distance dy above the charge -dBz/dt
points in the negative z-direction. A
negative Ex is induced right at the charge! The charge
accordingly experiences a self-induced electric force in the negative x-direction, and that
force is equal and oppositely directed to the external force. This self-induced
force is called the inertial reaction force, and it is implicit in Newton’s 3rd
law. Similarly, an accelerated negative
charge experiences a self-induced electric force that is equal and oppositely
directed to the external force.
imagine a particle of “matter” (as Newton might have contemplated), also
accelerated in the positive x-direction. The equivalent of the external E
field would be the gravitational field, g.
For energy conservation reasons1 the g
field and the mass are assumed to be mathematically imaginary. Hence the
external gravitational field must
point in the negative x-direction. The
particle (whose mass is imaginary) accordingly accelerates in the positive
counterpart of the charge’s B field
(dubbed O) has been called the
gravitomagnetic field. It is also imaginary. -dOz/dt
(at a point directly above the particle) points in the negative z-direction.
This results in an induced imaginary g
field right at the particle that points in the negative x-direction. Calculating
the self-induced reaction force in
this case produces a reaction force that points in the positive
x-direction, which is the same direction as the external force! Newton’s 3rd
law is violated!
suggests that Newton’s particles of “matter” (like neutrons)
must in actuality be comprised of electric charges, held together by
powerful internal forces that sum to zero. This conclusion has been confirmed by
high energy collision experiments where neutrons are broken apart. The
constituent charges are called quarks. Similar remarks apply to charged
particles such as protons. They are also comprised of quarks.
quarks collectively correlate to an “electromagnetic mass.” But it is often
pointed out that this electromagnetic mass does not equate to the total mass in
Newton’s 2nd law2. There is evidently a
non-electromagnetic part, dubbed “mechanical mass”, that
also contributes to the particle’s total mass. The physical basis for this
mass lies in the assumption that the binding energy (dubbed gluons), holding the
quarks together in a particle, also contributes to the particle’s mass. (That
is, mmechanical = Ebinding / c2.) Together the
electromagnetic and mechanical masses add up to the experimentally measure total
mass of the particle.
laws, coupled with Maxwell’s equations and the mathematically imaginary nature
of “matter”, seem to necessitate
the existence of quarks and the binding energies that hold them together in
neutrons, protons, etc. Sir Isaac would no doubt have been surprised to learn
that, in reality, “matter” does not exist.
See the article “On Gravitomagnetism”
See The Feynman Lectures on Physics,
V2, Section 28-3, “Electromagnetic Mass”.