“Matter” and Quarks



Consider a particle of positive charge, momentarily on the x-axis at the origin. An external electric force causes the charge to accelerate in the positive x-direction. If we use our right hand to construct a circle, centered on the charge and lying in the yz-plane, then at a distance dy above the charge -dBz/dt points in the negative z-direction. A negative Ex is induced right at the charge! The charge accordingly experiences a self-induced electric force in the negative x-direction, and that force is equal and oppositely directed to the external force. This self-induced force is called the inertial reaction force, and it is implicit in Newton’s 3rd law. Similarly, an accelerated negative charge experiences a self-induced electric force that is equal and oppositely directed to the external force.


Now imagine a particle of “matter” (as Newton might have contemplated), also accelerated in the positive x-direction. The equivalent of the external E field would be the gravitational field, g. For energy conservation reasons1 the g field and the mass are assumed to be mathematically imaginary. Hence the external gravitational field must point in the negative x-direction. The particle (whose mass is imaginary) accordingly accelerates in the positive x-direction.


The counterpart of the charge’s B field (dubbed O) has been called the gravitomagnetic field. It is also imaginary. -dOz/dt (at a point directly above the particle) points in the negative z-direction. This results in an induced imaginary g field right at the particle that points in the negative x-direction.  Calculating the self-induced reaction force in this case produces a reaction force that points in the positive x-direction, which is the same direction as the external force! Newton’s 3rd law is violated!


This suggests that Newton’s particles of “matter” (like neutrons) must in actuality be comprised of electric charges, held together by powerful internal forces that sum to zero. This conclusion has been confirmed by high energy collision experiments where neutrons are broken apart. The constituent charges are called quarks. Similar remarks apply to charged particles such as protons. They are also comprised of quarks.


The quarks collectively correlate to an “electromagnetic mass.” But it is often pointed out that this electromagnetic mass does not equate to the total mass in Newton’s 2nd law2. There is evidently a non-electromagnetic part, dubbed “mechanical mass”,  that also contributes to the particle’s total mass. The physical basis for this mass lies in the assumption that the binding energy (dubbed gluons), holding the quarks together in a particle, also contributes to the particle’s mass. (That is, mmechanical = Ebinding / c2.) Together the electromagnetic and mechanical masses add up to the experimentally measure total mass of the particle.


Newton’s laws, coupled with Maxwell’s equations and the mathematically imaginary nature of  “matter”, seem to necessitate the existence of quarks and the binding energies that hold them together in neutrons, protons, etc. Sir Isaac would no doubt have been surprised to learn that, in reality, “matter” does not exist.



1. See the article “On Gravitomagnetism”


2. See The Feynman Lectures on Physics, V2, Section 28-3, “Electromagnetic Mass”.


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