A Suggested Classical Model for a Down (Negative) Quark

Useful Values:


According to the Equivalence Principle,

minert =|mgrav| = m = 8.592-30


In this article the objective is to demonstrate that a down quark might be modeled as a spherical shell of charge q=-e/3, with radius rq, concentric with a spherical shell of gravitational mass mgrav, with radius rm. The idea is that the model will be stable if the negative work, expended to assemble the shell of gravitational mass, plus the positive work, expended to assemble the shell of charge, sum to zero:

Eq+Em=0.                (1)

The work expended to assemble the sphere of charge is theoretically

Eq=q2/6peorq.          (2)

Since in general Eq=minertc2, we can define the mass as

minert=Eq/c2        (3)


minert=q2/6peoc2rq.        (4)

Rearranging (4) we find that

rq = q2/6peoc2minert = 2.21306e-17         (5)


Eq = q2/6peorq = 7.7221e-13.        (6)

Now according to gravitomagnetic theory a companion equation to Eq. 6 can be formed by substituting the imaginary quantity mgrav for q, and G for 1/4peo: 

Em=2mgrav2G/3rm.            (7)

Note that since mgrav is theoretically imaginary, Em is negative.   

Em=-Eq=-7.7221e-13.        (8)

Rearranging (7) we find that

rm=2mgrav2G/3Em=4.25356e-57       (9)

Our model, then, consists of a miniscule sphere of mass, concentric with a much larger sphere of negative charge.

Given two up quarks whose centers are separated by R>rq, the electric repulsive force is


And the gravitational attractive force would be


Thus Felec>>Fgrav, and for most practical purposes the quarks (e.g. those in a neutron) simply repel one another electrically.